Sampling and Serology

Sampling and DNA Identification

Bode has unsurpassed experience testing various types of forensic cases for over 25 years and has specialized protocols for handling difficult sample types, starting at the sampling step.

Touch DNA: Improved Sampling and Extractions

For touch evidence, Bode has validated and implemented more sensitive sampling methods utilizing tape lifts, Post-It Notes, and scraping techniques. In conjunction with these sampling methods, a touch evidence protocol has been developed to optimize the DNA extraction efficiency from trace evidence and touch DNA associated with some cold cases.


Advanced Sampling Techniques

Obtaining successful Touch DNA results depends on recognizing items areas on items which may be suitable for Touch DNA analysis, and using the sampling technique that will recover the highest number of skin cells:

Sampling Method

Evidence Type


Non-porous surfaces


Identified stain areas


Clothing, carpets, car floor mats, ligatures

Tape Lift/ Post-It

Ropes, ligatures, cords

Body Fluid Detection

While Bode has pioneered the direct-to-DNA workflow for sexual assault cases, Bode still offers traditional serology services as it has since 2001. Where appropriate, Bode will assess evidence items by Alternate Light Source (ALS) or visual examination in order to isolate potential body fluid stains. Bode recently implemented a new and more powerful ALS with infrared camera to detect blood on patterned or dark/black clothing in which blood stains would otherwise be difficult to visualize.

  • Phenolphthalein (Kastle-Meyer) presumptive test for blood
  • Acid Phosphatase presumptive test for semen
  • Phadebas® presumptive test for saliva
  • ABAcard® Hematrace® test is validated as a presumptive test for the presence of the hemoglobin found in human blood
  • OneStep ABAcard® p30 test can be used to confirm the presence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA or p30)